American Indian Solutions to Environmental Challenges

Photo Credits

Click here to download the American Indian Responses to Environmental Challenges Image Credits PDF

Acknowledgements

The National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) expresses gratitude to the people of the Akwesasne Mohawk, Campo Kumeyaay, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, and Lummi nations and appreciation for the knowledge and experiences they share on these pages.

The museum also thanks the following staff and other contributors to the website American Indian Responses to Environmental Challenges.

  • Kevin Gover (Pawnee), director, NMAI
  • Tim Johnson (Mohawk), associate director for Museum Programs, NMAI
  • Clare Cuddy, education manager, NMAI
  • Vilma Ortiz-Sanchez, project manager, NMAI
  • Edwin Schupman (Muscogee), content manager, NMAI
  • Carol Johnson (Diné), Edwin Schupman (Muscogee), and Genevieve Simermeyer (Osage), research, development, and writing, NMAI
  • Night Kitchen Interactive, design and development
  • Kathy Suter and Kevin Cartwright, Dan Davis, Augusta Lehman (lead), media producers, NMAI
  • Kat Communications, media producers
  • Pam Woodis (Jicarilla Apache), contract manager, NMAI
  • Mikal Brotnov, Megan Byrnes, Jake Goldstein, research assistants, NMAI
  • Steve Bell, Alexandra Harris (Cherokee), Ann McMullen, Dawn Neuendorffer, Shannon Quist, and Ramsey Weeks (Assiniboine and Hidatsa) additional assistance, NMAI
  • Cynthia Frankenburg, Jennifer O’Neil, and Lou Stancari, photo archivists, NMAI
  • Cheryl Wilson and Joe Poccia, Holly Stewart, Jason Wigfield, NMAI Web Office
  • Leslie O’Flahavan, instructional writer, E-Write
  • Wendy Scherrer, environmental education consultant, BlueGreen Northwest
  • Amy Pickworth, editor
  • Holly Twyford, narrator
  • Ross Chaney, Byran Milliren, Stephen Mullenix, Gail Smedley, Stephanie Strow, and Kim Wichers, classroom evaluators

Community Collaborators

Akwesasne Mohawk

  • Akwesasne Freedom School: Students, Parents, Faculty, and Administration
  • Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment
  • Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force
  • Mohawk Council of Akwesasne (MCA), Department of Environment
  • Saint Regis Mohawk Tribal (SRMT) Council
  • Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe Environment Division
  • Lyle Anderson (Six Nations), singer
  • Henry Arquette (Mohawk), basketmaker and elder
  • Randi Barreiro (Mohawk), photo researcher
  • Aronhiaronnion Beauvais (Mohawk), student, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • Aimee Benedict (Mohawk), webmaster, SRMT Public Information Office
  • Daniel Benedict (Mohawk), web designer, Environment Division, SRMT
  • Ernest Benedict (Mohawk), elder
  • Florence Benedict (Mohawk), basketmaker and elder
  • Les Benedict (Mohawk), assistant director, Environment Division, SRMT
  • Luz Benedict (Mohawk), basketmaker
  • Salli Benedict (Mohawk), basketmaker
  • Maxine Cole (Mohawk), teacher, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • Richard “Junior” Cook, Jr. (Mohawk), elder
  • Kelly Church (Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa), basketmaker
  • Richard David (Mohawk), basketmaker and Assistant Director, MCA Department of Environment
  • Cheyanne Doxtador (Six Nations), Akwesasne community member
  • Aronhiaies Herne (Mohawk), Principal, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • Sue Ellen Herne (Mohawk), program coordinator, Akwesasne Museum
  • Art Johnson (Six Nations), singer
  • Danielle Lazore-Thompson (Mohawk), counsel, SRMT
  • Laura McDonald (Mohawk), Akwesasne Museum
  • Elizabeth W. Pentico, U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Elizabeth Perkins (Mohawk), teacher, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • Richard Sorensen, museum specialist, Smithsonian American Art Museum
  • David Staddon, SRMT Public Information Office
  • Bob Stevenson (Cree-Métis), environmental educator, MCA Department of Environment, and manager, Thompson Island Youth and Elders Cultural Camp
  • Rasentonkwa Tarbell (Mohawk), student, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • Kanohkwahawi Thomas (Mohawk), student, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • Darrel Thompson (Mohawk), storyteller and teacher, Akwesasne Freedom School
  • David Winchell, public affairs representative, New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Region 5

Campo Kumeyaay Nation

  • Campo Kumeyaay Nation
  • Campo Kumeyaay Nation, Environmental Protection Agency
  • Autumn Brown, Kumeyaay language student
  • Nancy Castillo-Brown, Kumeyaay language student
  • Michael Connolly (Campo Kumeyaay), environmental consultant and former tribal councilman
  • Shelley Cuero, vice chairwoman, Campo Kumeyaay Nation
  • Harry Paul Cuero, Jr. (Campo Kumeyaay), tribal councilman and singer
  • Melissa Estes, dDirector, Campo Environmental Protection Agency
  • Robin Gaynes, Kumeyaay language student
  • Lisa Gover (Pawnee), former director, Campo Environmental Protection Agency
  • Louis Guassac (Mesa Grande Band of Mission Indians), singer
  • Fidel Hyde (Campo Kumeyaay), senior technician, Campo Environmental Protection Agency
  • Rudy Jasso, translator
  • Nicole Kashat, Kumeyaay language student
  • Monique LaChappa (Campo Kumeyaay), chairwoman, Campo Kumeyaay Nation
  • Tonya Largo (Campo Kumeyaay), Campo Environmental Protection Agency
  • Raymond Leon (Oneida), environmental technician, Campo Environmental Protection Agency
  • William Moffett (Campo Kumeyaay), well-digging contractor
  • Concepcion Montes Silva (San Jose de la Zorra Kumeyaay), traditional basketmaker
  • Stan Rodriguez (Santa Ysabel Band of the Iipay Nation), Kumeyaay language instructor
  • Ana Gloria Rodriguez (Baja Kumiai Tribe), basketmaker
  • Amanda Rosas, Kumeyaay language student
  • David Shipp, data and natural resource technician, Campo Environmental Protection Agency
  • Warren Storm Thunder, Kumeyaay language student
  • Charlene Worrell, Kumeyaay language student

Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe

  • Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe Tribal Council
  • Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, Division of Resources Management (LLDRM)
  • Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe, Natural Resources Advisory Committee (LLNRAC)
  • Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School: Students, Parents, Faculty, and Administration
  • Niigaane Ojibwe Language Immersion Program: Students, Parents, Faculty, and Administration
  • Tracey Benjamin (Leech Lake Ojibwe), Leech Lake wild rice processor
  • Levi Brown (Leech Lake Ojibwe), environmental director, LLDRM
  • Ken Bruns, A&B Wild Rice Processing, Cass Lake, Minnesota
  • Amy Burnett, Purchasing, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
  • Wilford Corpola, (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • Peter David, Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission
  • Annette Drewes, coordinator, Save Our Rice Alliance
  • Elaine Fleming (Leech Lake Ojibwe), Ojibwe culture and history instructor, Leech Lake Tribal College
  • Leslie Harper (Leech Lake Ojibwe), director, Niigaane Ojibwe Language Immersion Program
  • Jeffrey Harper, water quality specialist, LLDRM
  • Ernest Howard (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • Bruce Johnson (Leech Lake Ojibwe), director, LLDRM, and chair, LLNRAC
  • Eric Johnson (Leech Lake Ojibwe), wild rice gatherer
  • Richard Johnson (Leech Lake Ojibwe), wild rice gatherer
  • Jim Jones Jr. (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • Susan Kedzie, invasive species program coordinator, LLDRM
  • Rebecca Knowles, plant ecologist, LLDRM
  • Wilfred Kopek (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • Gina Lemon (Leech Lake Ojibwe), tribal historic preservation officer, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
  • Mark Lewer, photographer, Leech Lake Tribal College
  • Bill Lindner, photographer
  • Jamie Mitchell (Leech Lake Ojibwe), Leech Lake conservation chief
  • Albert Mitchell (Leech Lake Ojibwe), community member
  • Robert (John) Mitchell (Leech Lake Ojibwe), elder, Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School
  • Dave Morgan (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • John Parmeter, teacher, Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School
  • Steve Mortensen, biologist, LLDRM
  • Gilbert Moose (Leech Lake Ojibwe), culture teacher, Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School
  • Michael Price, University of Montana
  • Martin Robinson, Fisheries, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
  • Terrence Robinson (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • Elizabeth Sherman (Leech Lake Ojibwe), community member
  • Casey Smith (Red Lake Ojibwe), student, Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School and singer
  • Steve Smith (White Earth Ojibwe), biology and chemistry instructor, Leech Lake Tribal College
  • Tanya Strucker, GIS specialist, Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe
  • Colleen Wells, Leech Lake Heritage Sites Program
  • Robert Washington (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC
  • Bruce White (Leech Lake Ojibwe), culture director, drum and dance instructor, Bug-O-Nay-Ge-Shig School
  • Gerald White (Leech Lake Ojibwe), Indian education director/cultural liaison, Deer River School District
  • Eugene “Ribs” Whitebird (Leech Lake Ojibwe), District III representative, Leech Lake Tribal Council
  • Victor Thompson (Leech Lake Ojibwe), LLNRAC

Lummi Nation

  • Lummi Indian Business Council
  • Lummi Cultural Resource Protection Commission
  • Lummi Nation, Communications Department
  • Lummi Nation, Natural Resources Department (LNRD)
  • Lummi Nation, Fish Commission
  • Northwest Indian College
  • Lummi Nation School: Students, Parents, Faculty, and Administration
  • A. J. Barse, director, Lummi Communications Department
  • Dr. David Beatty, volunteer (retired), Nooksack Salmon Enhancement Association
  • John Belisle, owner, BelleWood Acres
  • Frank E. Bob (Lummi), watershed restoration assistant, LNRD
  • Doug Bob (Lummi), singer
  • Raymond Cagey (Lummi), community member
  • Clarence “Jack” Cagey (Lummi), elder
  • Charlotte Clausing (White Earth Chippewa), environmental technician, Northwest Indian College
  • Crystal Conley, fish specialist, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
  • Leroy Deardorff, environmental director, LNRD
  • Linda Delgado (Lummi), salmon enhancement manager, LNRD
  • Lyn Dennis, former director, Lummi Communications Department
  • Bill R. Finkbonner (Lummi), manager, Skookum Creek Hatchery, LNRD
  • Amber Forslund, student, Northwest Indian College
  • Robert Hall (Yakama), Lummi Bay Hatchery manager, LNRD
  • Henry Hillaire, elder, and family (Lummi)
  • James Hillaire (Lummi), director, Lummi Nation Culture Department, and cultural protection director and chairman of the Lummi Cultural Resource Protection Commission
  • Jim Hansen, salmon restoration coordinator (retired), LNRD
  • Harlan James (Lummi), policy representative, LNRD
  • Harold Jefferson (Lummi), student, Lummi Nation School
  • Merle Jefferson, director, LNRD
  • Al Scott Johnny (Lummi), policy analyst, Lummi Cultural Department
  • William “Willy” E. Jones, Sr. (Lummi), elder
  • Sharon Kinley (Lummi), director, Coast Salish Institute, Northwest Indian College
  • Mary Ann Lee, chemistry teacher, Lummi Nation School
  • Heather Leighton (Lummi), principal, Lummi Nation School
  • Troy Olson (Lummi), commercial fisherman
  • Doralee Sanchez (Lummi), culture education coordinator, Lummi Nation School
  • Susan Given-Seymour, director of outreach & community education/cooperative extension, Northwest Indian College
  • Jason Small, curriculum director, Lummi Nation School
  • Ted Solomon, director, Lummi Language Department
  • Felix Solomon, Lummi artist and former commercial fisherman
  • Moriah Solomon (Lummi) student, Lummi Nation School
  • Steve Solomon (Lummi), Lummi Fish Commission
  • Matt Warbus (Lummi), language instructor, Lummi Language Department
  • Cynthia Wilson (Lummi), culture teacher, Lummi Nation School